It is a surgical method, which allows to perform complicated surgeries without opening the abdominal cavity. Important for the patient is that no trace remains on the skin afterwards. Giving up the traditional method of laparotomy (i.e. large incision of the abdominal wall) decreases the risk of post-surgical complications, is associated with low risk of post-surgical adhesions and allows for considerably quicker recovery. Nowadays laparoscopy is applied for numerous surgical and gynaecological operations.
Gynaecological laparoscopy is a diagnostic and surgical method, which consists of performing two or three minor incisions, through which the surgical devices are introduced to the abdominal cavity. The examination allows to view the outer surface of the organs of the abdominal cavity and to perform various gynaecological procedures such as removal of ovarian cysts or uterine fibroids, as well as diagnostics and surgical infertility or endometriosis treatment.
In gynaecology, laparoscopy is used because it is less traumatic than surgical opening of the abdominal cavity. In many gynaecological surgeries, no big operative field is required, it is enough to have a glimpse, which is what laparoscopy offers, to diagnose the patient or to perform a surgery.
The preparations for laparoscopy cover the same steps as for any other surgery: lab analyses (blood count, electrolyte levels, INR and ECG) and being on an empty stomach (last meal at 10 p.m.). After the surgery, the surgical devices are removed from the abdominal cavity. Sometimes special liquid or gel is introduced to the abdominal cavity to prevent adhesions. Minor incision are sewn with single stitches and those, which are insoluble, are removed after 5-7 days.