Hysteroscopy is a procedure performed to view the enlarged inside of the uterus using an optical device called hysteroscope, introduced by the vagina do the cervix and next to the uterine cavity. Using additional devices introduced by the hysteroscope to the uterine cavity, it is possible to collect samples of the mucous membrane for histopathological examination as well as perform some surgeries inside the uterine cavity (surgical hysteroscopy). The patient is qualified for the surgery by a gynaecologist on the basis of an interview, gynaecological examination and transvaginal ultrasonographic examination. The surgery is usually performed under intravenous general anesthesia.

The treatment allows to assess changes in endometrium (mucous membrane of the uterus) as well as the inside of the uterine cavity and to determine the scope of these changes. Such technology allows to see the inside of the uterus. The examination might be combined with a simultaneous therapeutic surgery, e.g. removal of intrauterine adhesions, fibroids or polyps.

Hysteroscopy might be performed after the menstrual bleeding has finished until the middle of the menstrual cycle, which is about 15th day of the cycle. In women with incorrect bleedings it is best to perform the examination between the bleedings or at the time when the bleeding is least intense. In patients treated because of infertility, it is recommended to perform the examination of vaginal biocenosis or the screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Such examination might be performed in a hospital. The preparations before the surgery are individually discussed with the doctor. On the day of the surgery the patient must be on an empty stomach and should bring a nightdress, a gown and slippers. The patient is hospitalised, usually for two days, then the patient should be escorted home.