The classic in vitro fertilisation (also knows as IVF) is recommended after an exhaustive investigation of infertility. It is carried out in cases of total or partial fallopian tubes obstruction, sperm abnormalities, chronic absence of ovulation, the presence of immunological factors, endometriosis, unsuccessful insemination attempts with the husband’s or donor sperm as well as unexplained infertility.
The procedure involves several stages. After a controlled hyperstimulation of the ovaries follows the collection of egg cells. The egg collection is performed transvaginally and usually under the general anaesthetic. In the next step the collected egg cells are placed in a petri dish for fertilisation with previously collected and prepared sperm from the husband or donor. A fertilised egg cell is called a zygote. The zygote develops into an embryo. The embryos remain in the laboratory under strictly controlled conditions for the next 3 to 5 days. In the following step the embryos are transferred into the uterine cavity. The effectiveness of the classic IVF method is 25-45% pregnancies per embryo transfer.

The ICSI method is among the most significant achievements in male infertility treatment. The procedure consists of inserting a single sperm with a micropipette (under the microscope) into a matured egg cell. ICSI is used in cases of significantly reduced male fertility (low sperm count in semen, diminished motility of sperm as well as a lot of sperm with abnormalities), failed attempts of classic IVF (no fertilisation or a thick zona pellucida preventing sperm from entering the egg). In addition, in cases of blocked sperm carrying ducts there is the possibility of collecting sperm from the partner’s epididymis (MESA – Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration, PESA – Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) and in cases of seminiferous tubule dysgenesis — from the testes (TESE – Testicular Sperm Extraction, TESA – Testicular Sperm Aspiration). The ICSI method, carried out by an experienced embryologist increases the probability of the fertilisation of an egg cell even by 90%.

The embryos created during an IVF procedure are usually transferred into the uterine cavity on the third day after fertilisation. In some cases, the transfer is carried out on day 5, i.e. during the so-called blastocyst stage. It is during this stage that the natural implantation of the embryo in the uterine cavity occurs.